The thyroid is a gland in the neck that produces hormones that regulate the body’s metabolism. It is controlled by the pituitary gland and produces hormones such as thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which play a role in growth, development, and metabolism. An imbalance in thyroid hormones can lead to conditions such as hypothyroidism (too little hormone) or hyperthyroidism (too much hormone).
Symptoms of thyroid
The symptoms of thyroid dysfunction can vary depending on whether the thyroid is overactive (hyperthyroidism) or underactive (hypothyroidism).
Symptoms of hyperthyroidism may include:
- Weight loss
- Rapid heartbeat
- Nervousness or irritability
- Trouble sleeping
- Weakness or fatigue
Symptoms of hypothyroidism may include:
- Weight gain
- Cold intolerance
- Dry skin
- Heavy or irregular menstrual periods
Causes of thyroid
There are several causes of thyroid dysfunction, including:
- Hashimoto’s thyroiditis: an autoimmune disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid gland
- Graves’ disease: an autoimmune disorder that causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroid hormone
- Thyroid nodules: lumps that develop in the thyroid gland, which can be benign or cancerous
- Thyroiditis: inflammation of the thyroid gland, which can be caused by viral or bacterial infections
- Iodine deficiency: the thyroid gland needs iodine to produce thyroid hormones, so a deficiency can lead to dysfunction
- Certain medications: certain drugs, such as lithium and amiodarone, can interfere with thyroid function
- Radiation exposure: exposure to high levels of radiation, such as from radiation therapy, can damage the thyroid gland.
Treatment of thyroid
The treatment for thyroid conditions depends on the type and severity of the disorder. Generally, treatment options may include medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery.
Medications: Medications for thyroid disorders may include thyroid hormone replacement therapy, hormones to reduce levels of thyroid hormones, or anti-thyroid drugs to treat an overactive thyroid.
Lifestyle Changes: Changes in diet, exercise, or stress levels can help improve symptoms of thyroid conditions.
Surgery: Surgery may be recommended in extreme cases, such as when a large goiter or thyroid cancer is present.
A thyroid test is a blood test to measure the level of thyroid hormones in the blood. The most common thyroid test is the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) test. The test is used to help diagnose and monitor the treatment of thyroid conditions, such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid cancer. The results of the test can help determine if medication is needed to treat an abnormal thyroid or if further evaluation and tests are necessary.
why thyroid is happening
Thyroid disease is caused by an imbalance in the number of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. The most common causes of this imbalance are an autoimmune disorder (Graves’ disease or Hashimoto’s disease) or inflammation of the thyroid (thyroiditis). In either case, the body’s immune system mistakenly attacks the thyroid gland, resulting in too much or too little hormone production. Other causes of thyroid disease can include iodine deficiency, radiation or chemotherapy treatment, or certain medications.